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About Digital Art / Professional Official Beta Tester Scott HartmanMale/United States Recent Activity
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Scott Hartman
Artist | Professional | Digital Art
United States
Current Residence: Wisconsin
Favourite genre of music: Anything but country!
Operating System: Windows 10, OSX, & Android
MP3 player of choice: Anything that can connect to Google Music


New-look Dilophosaurus by ScottHartman
New-look Dilophosaurus
Here's Dilophosaurus. Maybe I'll find time for a blog on this one, but a lot of things we think we "know" about Dilophosaurus aren't true, like the overly short ilium and bizarre upper scapula from Welles 1985 osteology (which were propagated to more recent skeletal reconstructions). We also don't know the shape of the crests for certain - I've followed Jaime Headden's interpretation of the back of the crest as broken (rather than a splint that stood alone), but we really don't know for sure either way.
Kentrosaurus by ScottHartman
Despite there being a lot of Kentrosaurus material, and it being well-described, this still proved to be a challenge because it's not all from specimens of the same size. I'm still not 100% convinced that the forelimbs don't need to be scaled up relative to the hindlimbs, but I've left them at the same size as the Berlin composite mount. The other elements seem to check out - and I'll say that I can't replicate the extremely tall body that is extremely short front to back like in some previous reconstructions.

Edit: After some discussion with Heinrich Mallison I've updated the tail spikes. As for the underlying data on the tail spikes, as well as the unresolved issue of where the large body spike goes...there will be more on that later. In the meantime, keep in mind that whether there is a shoulder spike, a hip spike, or some other configurations is not really settled for Kentrosaurus.
Monolophosaurus by ScottHartman
Because the internet never loses anything, the very old (2003) version that I had pulled from my website years ago still turns up in search engine results. So here's an updated one that reflects the basal-tetanuran pedigree that most researchers agree on these days.
Tylosaurus - teach the controversey web resolution by ScottHartman 

First of all, let me thank all of you who wrote birthday well-wishes, all of the wonderful social interactions on DA are what keep me coming back. I also wanted to update you on a blog post I wrote about mosasaur tails:…

The tl;dr version is that you can still find people who would support any these extremes in tail fluke design, but I think the middle two (or somewhere in between) is the most likely. Hit up the article for more depth as to why.


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XStreamChaosOfficial Featured By Owner 11 hours ago  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Hi! How are you doing? I have a question about the book, "The Princeton Field Guide to Dinosaurs" with the name Gregory S. Paul. He also credits you. I'm assuming that you did the skeletal reconstructions. I was informed that this was published in 2010. Is there any slight inaccuracies I should watch out for in the text or illustrations? It concerned me most when I saw a full scaly Therizinosaurus.
ScottHartman Featured By Owner 9 hours ago  Professional Digital Artist
Oh no, Greg did all of his own skeletal reconstructions for his Field Guide. While I prefer my own (big surprise, I know), Greg has been making then significantly longer than I have - he started doing them in the late '70s and publishing them regularly in the mid '80s, while I started doing them in the early '90s and didn't start publishing then until the late '90s. Fwiw Greg picked up and modified the style from Bob Bakker, who I assume drew inspiration from either Scheele's 1954 Prehistoric Animals or Charles Knights earlier treatment of extant mammals in Animal Anatomy & Physiology (or maybe both, I never asked Bob). There are many antecedents to those as well, but that's probably enough to answer your question.

I'm credited in Greg's book for the same reason most of the others are - discussion and sharing data. The work Greg and I do obviously overlaps, but we aren't engaged in mortal combat or anything!
Sekley Featured By Owner 6 hours ago
While Paul did help change the ball game during the Dinosaur Renaissance, I still can't help but cringe at his artwork of live dinosaurs. They seem too angular and thin for my tastes, as if emaciated.  Speaking of paleoart, would you mind to take a look at my Jurassic Park Reboot series? Point out any anatomical flaws, unlikely traits, etc? I am aware now though that my Triceratops' tail is a little too horizontal, so no need to point that out. Boy I got to fix that :(
ScottHartman Featured By Owner 5 hours ago  Professional Digital Artist
In science we all are eventually reduced to steps in the path to greater understanding, but that doesn't diminish the contributions Greg has made (and hopefully will continue to make) to paleoart and dinosaur anatomy. I do agree that his dinosaurs tend towards the shrinkwrapped end of the spectrum, but I think we are also seeing an overly uniform correction - some animals actually do show off a lot of anatomy (and some birds do, underneath their feathers).

That's not a call to return to shrinkwrapped dinosaurs, but a plea to remember there isn't a one size fits all solution to fitness and dermal fat in tetrapods.
(1 Reply)
Sekley Featured By Owner Edited 4 days ago
This has been a long time coming, think you can answer some of these questions about Jurassic World please?

At the beginning of the film, when the Indominus escapes and the doors close on it, would a theropod of similar size survive that in reality?

Also would it actually be really easy to subdue a large theropod using cattle prods and stun guns or would it be a nightmare just as the film portrayed it as?

This is a question about behavior, so probably not easy to answer, but would baby dinosaurs in real life be at all tolerant of children touching them or even riding them?

Did mosasaurs really eat pterosaurs?

Could a tyrannosaur actually live as long as Rexy, the original T. rex from the first movie who reappears in Jurassic World, did? Considering it's been 22 years since the first movie, she'd have to at least be 40 right?

Could a tyrannosaur or any large theropod be able to bite through glass meant to stop a .50 caliber bullet?

There is a huge hole in the restricted zone's fence when the kids take their hamster ball into the forest. Could a large dinosaur actually break down such a structure?
ScottHartman Featured By Owner 4 days ago  Professional Digital Artist
Wow, OK. I also enjoyed the movie (as a generic monster flic), but I admit I haven't given much thought to it in terms of science (since it's just silly) but I'll do my best:

The first question is the hardest, because I don't actually know what the mass and tensile strength of the doors are, the power source and mechanism that operated it, etc. Elephants today can certainly plow through houses, but steel reinforced concrete would be a different story. Of course the Indominus doesn't so much break through as much as it withstands the initial closing pressure and then opens the doors, so the door mechanism is probably the most important unknown. While watching the movie I filed this under "cars exploding when shot with a gun" level of realism (e.g. highly exaggerated).

It really depends on the A) the voltage of the stun guns/cattle prods, and the personality of the animal/species. That might sound odd, but honestly the orneriness of an animal makes a big difference - it's much harder to stun a badger or wolverine than it is an equivalent sized dog. Wildlife biologists that have to tranquilize animals run into the same problems of species and individual variation. But plot-wise that scene was never about whether it would work well, and more about the initial miscalculation of risk and reward - the corporate wigs were trying to preserve their investment by using non-lethal weapons, and it led to more tragedy (on a fun non-science point, did you notice that the animal doesn't actually attack until the people try to stun it in that scene? I don't know if that was intentional, but given that it was raised in isolation and was now in the wild it's fun to wonder if the encounter and entire movie could have gone very differently if they had tried to lure the Indominus back to its enclosure rather than attack it).

Baby dinosaur "petting tolerance" would probably vary by species (just as it does with modern animals), but given the genetic manipulation ability shown in the movie they almost certainly could have created docile young for the sake of ticket sales (that's got to be a lot easier to do than creating a creature that can control its own IR signature, right?).

Mosasaur gut contents don't yet show pterosaur remains as far as I know, but they do show seabirds, so the idea isn't crazy, especially if some pterosaurs landed on or swam through the ocean. Leaping out of the water to secure a human and pterosaur snack probably is another example of cars blowing up because you show a gun at the gas tank.

In the books they mention that they explicitly inserted genes that made the animals grow to adulthood more rapidly, in which case the 'rex might be closer to 30 years, which is reasonable. But even if we ignore the book (since the movies usually do!) animals in zoos often live quite a bit longer than in the wild, so in that since it's not too outrageous. The question has been raised as to whether any extinct animals would be susceptible to early death because they wouldn't be able to withstand modern disease, but that also seems like the kind of thing Ingen would have solved long before being able to resurrect a non-avian dinosaur, so I'm OK with it.

That's a whole strength of materials issue that involves the brand and thickness of the bullet-resistant glass. More generically, sustained pressure can certainly be more effective than a bullet (which is harmless if you deflect the initial impact), and multiple impacts (e.g. in the hamster ball when it's batted around by the ankylosaurs) can significantly weaken such glass.

Did I miss something? The kids enter through an open gate into the restricted zone. I have no idea why it was open, but I don't recall it being broken down by the Indominus.

I hope that helps...or at least made for entertaining reading!
Sekley Featured By Owner 4 days ago
Awesome. Thanks :D

One thing I found inconsistent was the I. rex's heat sensing ability. If it can pick up these signatures, how come it didn't notice Chris Pratt under the truck? I also don't get how covering yourself in fuel would help.
ScottHartman Featured By Owner 2 days ago  Professional Digital Artist
Was it detecting heat signatures? I thought it was only altering its own, so I assumed Pratt was just covering up his sent. Fuel does evaporate quickly, so it would temporarily lower your skin temperature, but since I didn't even realize that I. rex was supposed to be detecting IR I really can't comment on how sensitive it was, etc.
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MightyRaptor Featured By Owner Nov 17, 2015  Student Digital Artist
Happy Dinovember!
ScottHartman Featured By Owner 2 days ago  Professional Digital Artist
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